ASIS 2013 quals # Crypto – Cryptor

URL: http://ctf.asis.io/challenges/1005/
Type: XOR + byte nibbles shifting
Solution: ASIS_449e435e4c40dfa726f11b83a07b5471
 


Description
We have found the cryptor source code. Decrypt the file.
files


Archive cryptor.zip contains 2 files:

  Length     Date   Time    Name
 --------    ----   ----    ----
   787551  08-26-13 16:44   flag.png_Crypted
     1427  08-26-13 16:44   cryptor.cpp

cryptor.cpp is the C++ source code of the algorithm used to encrypt the PNG file flag:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <time.h>
 
using namespace std;
int bitXor(int, int);
 
int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
	srand(time(NULL));
	char *path=new char[30];
	if(argc > 1)
		path = argv[1];
	else
	{
		printf("\nenter file\n");
		scanf("%s",path);
	}
	int g = rand() % 512 + 32;
	int n = rand() % g;
	int mask = rand() % 256;
	FILE *inFile = fopen(path, "rb");
	FILE *outFile = fopen(strcat(path, "_Crypted"), "wb");
	if(inFile == NULL || outFile == NULL)
	{
		printf("Error\ncant read/write file\n");
		return 1;
	}
	unsigned char H, L;
	unsigned char *readBuffer = new unsigned char[g], *writeBuffer = new unsigned char[g];
	while(!feof(inFile))
	{
		int len = fread(readBuffer, 1, g, inFile);
		if(len < g)
			fwrite(readBuffer , 1 , len , outFile);
		else
		{
			for(int i = 0 ; i < g ; i++)
			{
				int nIndex = i + n;
				int pIndex = i - n;
				if(nIndex >= g) 
					nIndex -= g;
				if(nIndex < 0) 
					nIndex += g;
				if(pIndex >= g) 
					pIndex -= g;
				if(pIndex < 0) 
					pIndex += g;
				H = readBuffer[nIndex] / 16;
				L = readBuffer[pIndex] % 16;
				writeBuffer[i] = bitXor(16 * H + L, mask);
			}
			fwrite(writeBuffer , 1 , g , outFile);
		}
	}
	fclose (inFile);
	fclose (outFile);
	printf("\nsave decryption code: %d.%d.%d\n", g, n, mask);
	return 0;
}
 
int bitXor(int x, int y)
{
    int a = x & y;
    int b = ~x & ~y;
    int z = ~a & ~b;
    return z;
}

 

Algorithm analysis

This is a kind of block cipher. First we identify the meaning of the main variables:

  • int g = rand() % 512 + 32;
    32 ≤ g < 544 is used as the block fixed-length
  • int n = rand() % g;
    0 ≤ n < g is used as the offset shifting
  • int mask = rand() % 256;
    0 ≤ mask < 256 is used as the XOR value

In order to understand the encryption algorithm, we can also simplify the source code:

  • function int bitXor(int x, int y) is just a bitwise XOR between the 2 arguments
  • lines int nIndex = i + n;if(pIndex < 0) pIndex += g; can be reduced to:
    int nIndex = (i + n) % g;
    int pIndex = (i - n) % g;

  • H = readBuffer[nIndex] / 16; and L = readBuffer[pIndex] % 16; are dealing with byte nibbles, i.e. H is the high nibble of readBuffer[nIndex], and L is the low nibble of readBuffer[pIndex]
  • writeBuffer[i] = bitXor(16 * H + L, mask); combine the two nibbles H and L

Byte nibbles shifting

Let's have a look how the byte nibbles shifting works with a simple example. Assume block length g = 10 and offset n = 2:
NibblesShifting

Global specifications

From the algorithm analysis, we can notice:

  • n = position of readBuffer[0] low nibble
  • g = position of readBuffer[0] high nibble + position of readBuffer[0] low nibble
  • if we encrypt data with g, n and mask parameters, then decryption process = encryption with g, g-n and mask

Python implementation

Let's define some python functions to manage nibbles operations:

# Extract hi(gh) nibble (4 most significant bits) from a byte
def byte2hi_nibble(byte):
  return (byte >> 4)
 
# Extract lo(w) nibble (4 less significant bits) from a byte
def byte2lo_nibble(byte):
  return (byte & 0x0f)
 
# Extract list of hi(gh) and lo(w) nibbles from a byte
def byte2nibbles(byte):
  return [byte >> 4, byte & 0x0f]
 
# Combine hi(gh) and lo(w) nibbles into a byte
def nibbles2byte(hi, lo):
  return ((hi << 4) | lo)

 
Simplified encryption algorithm could be:

def encrypt(in_buffer, g, n, mask):
  out_buffer = ''
  for block in range(len(in_buffer) / g):
    tmp_buffer = [0] * g
    for i in range(g):
      tmp_buffer[i] = nibbles2byte(byte2hi_nibble(ord(in_buffer[(block * g) + ((i + n) % g)])),
                                   byte2lo_nibble(ord(in_buffer[(block * g) + ((i - n) % g)]))) ^ mask
    out_buffer += ''.join(map(chr,tmp_buffer))
  out_buffer += in_buffer[-(len(in_buffer) % g):]
  return out_buffer

 

Known Plain Text Attack

The flaw here is that we know from the name of the crypted file that the original one was a PNG image file. Thus we can search for the encryption of the PNG magic number hex sequences:

'\x89PNG\r\n\x1a\n'
  1. we know that PNG magic number is encrypted in the first bloc (max size = 543)
  2. we have to check separately the nibbles flows ; PNG magic number high nibbles are contiguous, as are low nibbles, but the two flows may be located at different offsets (i+n and i-n)
  3. for each position of the bloc, we determine nibble mask value with the first byte of the PNG magic number (using XOR properties (byte ^ mask) ^ byte = mask) ; then we check if the following nibbles XORed with this mask are equals to the nibbles of the full PNG magic number
  4. we finally compute g, n and mask (combination of high and low nibbles mask) according to the previous specifications
PNG_MAGIC = '\x89PNG\r\n\x1a\n'
PNG_MAGIC_len = len(PNG_MAGIC)
PNG_hi_nibble, PNG_lo_nibble = map(list, zip(*[byte2nibbles(ord(c)) for c in PNG_MAGIC]))
 
filename = 'flag.png'
f = open(filename + '_Crypted', 'rb')
in_buffer = f.read()
f.close()
# get g max buffer size = 512-1 + 32 / extend to avoid rotation due to n offset < PNG_MAGIC_len
gmax = 543
buffer = in_buffer[:gmax] + in_buffer[:PNG_MAGIC_len]
buffer_hi_nibble, buffer_lo_nibble = map(list, zip(*[byte2nibbles(ord(c)) for c in buffer]))
 
hi_pos, lo_pos = [], []
for nIndex in range(gmax):
  # search PNG magic number hi nibbles
  hi_mask = PNG_hi_nibble[0] ^ buffer_hi_nibble[nIndex]
  if [(n ^ hi_mask) for n in buffer_hi_nibble[nIndex:nIndex+PNG_MAGIC_len]] == PNG_hi_nibble:
    hi_pos.append([nIndex, hi_mask])
  # search PNG magic number lo nibbles
  lo_mask = PNG_lo_nibble[0] ^ buffer_lo_nibble[nIndex]
  if [(n ^ lo_mask) for n in buffer_lo_nibble[nIndex:nIndex+PNG_MAGIC_len]] == PNG_lo_nibble:
    lo_pos.append([nIndex, lo_mask])
 
if (len(hi_pos) > 1) or (len(lo_pos) > 1):
  print 'Magic number is not unique : hi_pos =', hi_pos, ' / lo_pos =', lo_pos
else:
  g = hi_pos[0][0] + lo_pos[0][0]
  n = lo_pos[0][0]
  mask = (hi_pos[0][1] << 4) | lo_pos[0][1]
  out_buffer = encrypt(in_buffer, g, g-n, mask)
  f = open(filename, 'wb')
  f.write(out_buffer)
  f.close()

 
Running on flag.png_Crypted, we obtain the encryption parameters g = 379, n = 143 and mask = 0xb8, and the following decoded PNG file:
flag.png

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